Saturday, March 12, 2016

Tools for studying and using small RNAs: from pathways to functions to therapies.

POSTER: Tools for studying and using small RNAs

Tools for studying and using small RNAs: from pathways to functions to therapies
Kenneth Chang and Gregory J. Hannon
Nature Reviews Genetics - November 2011 Vol 12 No 11

Small RNAs are key regulators of gene expression and genome function, with roles in almost every aspect of biology. Many small RNAs act through RNA interference (RNAi)-related mechanisms, which have become increasingly well understood. One class of small RNA, the microRNAs (miRNAs), naturally regulate programmes of gene expression, and altered miRNA function contributes to human disease.

This poster provides an overview of the tools that have been developed to understand the functions of small RNAs and, conversely, the use of small RNAs as tools. Tools that are based on small RNAs have been exploited to investigate gene function in cultured cells and in living animals. Similar strategies are being used to discover and validate new therapeutic targets, and small RNAs themselves may offer a mechanism for inhibiting targets that are currently viewed as 'undruggable'.

This Poster is freely available thanks to support from Thermo Scientific.For information about RNAi solutions from the sponsor, please click here.

DOWNLOAD THE POSTER FOR FREE HERE: http://bit.ly/xGxFha 

Monday, July 6, 2015

Antigen processing and presentation

Poster

Antigen processing and presentation

Pamela Wearsch and Peter Cresswell
Nature Reviews Immunology
Volume 15, No 7 July 2015

The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the body's ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth. As such, understanding the processes and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation provides us with crucial insights necessary for the design of vaccines and therapeutic strategies to bolster T-cell responses.
This poster provides an updated overview of the intracellular pathways and mechanisms by which antigens are captured, processed and loaded onto MHC class I, class II and CD1d molecules for presentation to T cells. The poster is freely available thanks to support from STEMCELL Technologies.

The immune response to HIV

Poster

The immune response to HIV

Nina Bhardwaj, Florian Hladik and Susan Moir
Nature Reviews Immunology
Volume 15, No 7 July 2015

A global research effort over the past three decades has discovered more about HIV than perhaps any other pathogen. Immunologists continue to be intrigued by the capacity of HIV to effectively knock out an essential component of the adaptive immune system — CD4+ T helper cells. Based on a clearer understanding of HIV infection and the response to it, the field has now entered an era of renewed optimism for the development of a successful vaccine.
This Poster summarizes how HIV establishes infection at mucosal surfaces, the ensuing immune response to the virus involving dendritic cells, B cells and T cells, and how HIV subverts this response to establish a chronic infection.
The Poster is freely available thanks to support from STEMCELL Technologies.

Dendritic cells: controllers of adaptive immunity

Poster


Dendritic cells: controllers of adaptive immunity

Miriam Merad
Nature Reviews Immunology
Volume 15, No 7 July 2015

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogenous population of antigen-presenting cells that have crucial roles in promoting both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. They monitor the body's tissues and can integrate multiple signals from the environment in order to initiate an appropriate adaptive immune response. Inflammatory signals promote DC activation and their migration to draining lymphoid tissues to prime effector T cell responses. However, in the steady state, DCs promote tissue homeostasis by supporting the induction of regulatory T cells.
This Poster provides an overview of some of the key ways in which DCs contribute to adaptive immunity.
The Poster is freely available thanks to support from BioLegend.

Saturday, November 15, 2014

Helicobacter pylori


Poster

Helicobacter pylori

David Y. Graham & Emad M. El-Omar
December 2013


Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that is transmitted between humans, especially in areas of poor household hygiene and sanitation. Infection with this bacterium causes gastric mucosal inflammation that can result in duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. This poster illustrates the environmental, genetic and bacterial risk factors for these clinical outcomes, as well as their pathological characteristics. An overview of currently available diagnostic and treatment approaches is also presented, as well as the potential for H. pylori eradication programmes.

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Helicobacter pylori is a common and important human pathogen and the primary cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori is transmitted between humans and is facilitated by poor household hygiene and sanitary conditions. The pathogen causes progressive gastric mucosal inflammation that might eventuate in atrophic gastritis and gastric atrophy. For a population, elimination of H. pylori will essentially eliminate gastric cancer risk. For the individual, H. pylori eradication will reduce gastric cancer risk depending on the extent of damage (that is, level of risk) when eradication is accomplished. Where gastric cancer is common, H. pylori eradication should be coupled with assessment of cancer risk to identify whether surveillance for gastric cancer is indicated.